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Giza pyramid complex - Memphis and its Necropolis – the Pyramid Fields from Giza to Dahshur

Gizeh, Egypt
22.10.2023

The Pyramids of Giza, located in Giza, Egypt, are one of the most iconic and awe-inspiring ancient structures in the world. This complex of pyramids and other structures, which includes the Great Pyramid of Khufu, the Pyramid of Khafre, and the Pyramid of Menkaure, was built over 4,500 years ago during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom period.

The Great Pyramid of Khufu, also known as the Pyramid of Cheops, is the largest and oldest of the three pyramids. It stands at a staggering height of 481 feet and was the tallest man-made structure in the world for over 3,800 years. It is estimated that over 2.3 million limestone blocks were used to construct this pyramid, and the precision and engineering involved in its construction continue to impress modern architects and engineers.

The Pyramid of Khafre, built by Khufu's son, is slightly smaller but appears taller due to its placement on higher ground. It is also known for its well-preserved limestone casing on its upper portion and the Great Sphinx, a statue with the head of a human and the body of a lion, which stands in front of it.

The Pyramid of Menkaure is the smallest of the three, but it is unique in that it has three smaller pyramids built for the pharaoh's wives and a large granite sarcophagus in its burial chamber.

Aside from the pyramids, the complex also includes the Valley Temple, where the mummification process took place, and the Solar Boat Museum, where a reconstructed boat used for Khufu's journey to the afterlife is displayed.

The Pyramids of Giza continue to intrigue and fascinate people from all over the world, with their impressive size, intricate construction, and mysterious history. They are a testament to the advanced civilization and remarkable engineering skills of the ancient Egyptians and are a must-see destination for any traveler interested in ancient history and architecture.


The capital of the Old Kingdom of Egypt has some extraordinary funerary monuments, including rock tombs, ornate mastabas, temples and pyramids. In ancient times, the site was considered one of the Seven Wonders of the World.

The Giza pyramid complex (also called the Giza necropolis) in Egypt is home to the Great Pyramid, the Pyramid of Khafre, and the Pyramid of Menkaure, along with their associated pyramid complexes and the Great Sphinx. All were built during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom of ancient Egypt, between c. 2600 – c. 2500 BC. The site also includes several temples, cemeteries, and the remains of a workers' village.

The site is at the edge of the Western Desert, approximately 9 km (5.6 mi) west of the Nile River in the city of Giza, and about 13 km (8.1 mi) southwest of the city centre of Cairo. It forms the northernmost part of the 16,000 ha (160 km2; 62 sq mi) Pyramid Fields of the Memphis and its Necropolis UNESCO World Heritage Site, inscribed in 1979. The pyramid fields include the Abusir, Saqqara, and Dahshur pyramid complexes, which were all built in the vicinity of Egypt's ancient capital of Memphis. Further Old Kingdom pyramid fields were located at the sites Abu Rawash, Zawyet El Aryan, and Meidum.

The Great Pyramid and the Pyramid of Khafre are the largest pyramids built in ancient Egypt, and they have historically been common as emblems of Ancient Egypt in the Western imagination. They were popularised in Hellenistic times, when the Great Pyramid was listed by Antipater of Sidon as one of the Seven Wonders of the World. It is by far the oldest of the Ancient Wonders and the only one still in existence.

The Memphite Necropolis (or Pyramid Fields) is a series of ancient Egyptian funerary complexes occupying a 30-kilometer (19 mi) stretch on the Western Desert plateau in the vicinity of the ancient capital of Memphis, Lower Egypt, today in Giza, Egypt. It includes the pyramid complexes of Giza, Abusir, Saqqara and Dahshur, and is listed as the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Memphis and its Necropolis. Most of the pyramids of the Old Kingdom were built here, along with many mastabas and other tombs.

wikipedia.org