Latest Visits

Historic Centre of Rome, the Properties of the Holy See in that City Enjoying Extraterritorial Rights and San Paolo Fuori le Mura

Rom, Italy

Das Historische Zentrum Roms ist ein beeindruckendes Beispiel für die reiche Geschichte, Kultur und Architektur der italienischen Hauptstadt. Es umfasst die extraterritorialen Stätten des Heiligen Stuhls in der Stadt und die Basilika Sankt Paul vor den Mauern. Diese Orte sind von großer Bedeutung für die katholische Kirche und ziehen jährlich Tausende von Besuchern an.

Die extraterritorialen Stätten des Heiligen Stuhls sind ein Teil des Vatikans, dem kleinsten unabhängigen Staat der Welt. Sie umfassen den Petersdom, den Apostolischen Palast und den Vatikanischen Garten. Der Petersdom ist die größte katholische Kirche der Welt und beherbergt zahlreiche Kunstwerke, darunter die berühmte Pietà von Michelangelo. Der Apostolische Palast ist der offizielle Sitz des Papstes und beherbergt auch die Vatikanischen Museen, die eine beeindruckende Sammlung von Kunstwerken und Artefakten aus der römischen und katholischen Geschichte beherbergen.

Die Basilika Sankt Paul vor den Mauern ist eine der vier Hauptbasiliken Roms und die zweitgrößte Kirche der Stadt. Sie wurde über dem Grab des Apostels Paulus errichtet und ist bekannt für ihre atemberaubende Architektur, darunter die beeindruckenden Mosaiken und Säulen. Die Basilika ist auch ein wichtiger Pilgerort für Katholiken, da sie als heiliger Ort des Martyriums des Apostels gilt.

Zusammen bilden diese Orte das historische Zentrum Roms und bieten Besuchern die Möglichkeit, tief in die Geschichte und Spiritualität der Stadt einzutauchen. Sie sind auch ein Symbol für die enge Verbindung zwischen Rom und der katholischen Kirche, die seit Jahrhunderten besteht.

Besucher können die extraterritorialen Stätten des Heiligen Stuhls und die Basilika Sankt Paul vor den Mauern auf eigene Faust erkunden oder an geführten Touren teilnehmen, die eine faszinierende Einblicke in die Geschichte und Bedeutung dieser Orte bieten. Egal, ob Sie ein Gläubiger sind oder einfach nur an der Geschichte und Kultur Roms interessiert sind, ein Besuch des Historischen Zentrums Roms und der extraterritorialen Stätten des Heiligen Stuhls ist ein unvergessliches Erlebnis.

Founded, according to legend, by Romulus and Remus in 753 BC, Rome was first the centre of the Roman Republic, then of the Roman Empire, and it became the capital of the Christian world in the 4th century. The World Heritage site, extended in 1990 to the walls of Urban VIII, includes some of the major monuments of antiquity such as the Forums, the Mausoleum of Augustus, the Mausoleum of Hadrian, the Pantheon, Trajan’s Column and the Column of Marcus Aurelius, as well as the religious and public buildings of papal Rome.

The small Sirgenstein Cave, German: Sirgensteinhöhle is situated 565 m (1,854 ft) above sea level inside the 20 m (66 ft) high Sirgenstein, a limestone rock. The cave sits 35 m (115 ft) above the Ach River valley bottom in the central Swabian Jura, southern Germany. Archaeologist R. R. Schmidt excavated the site in 1906 during which he identified indices of prehistoric human presence. He recorded the complete stratigraphic sequence of Palaeolithic and Neolithic origin. In his 1910 analysis Schmidt inspired future archaeologists with his pioneering concept of including the excavation site within its geographic region, contextualizing it within a wide scientific spectrum and demonstrated valuable results as he correlated the Sirgenstein layer structure to those of prehistoric sites in France.

The Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran (formally named the "Major Papal, Patriarchal and Roman Archbasilica Cathedral of the Most Holy Savior and Saints John the Baptist and the Evangelist in Lateran, Mother and Head of All Churches in Rome and in the World", and commonly known as the Lateran Basilica or Saint John Lateran) is the Catholic cathedral of the Diocese of Rome in the city of Rome, and serves as the seat of the bishop of Rome, the pope. The archbasilica lies outside of Vatican City proper, which is located approximately four kilometres (2+1⁄2 miles) northwest. Nevertheless, as properties of the Holy See, the archbasilica and its adjoining edifices enjoy an extraterritorial status from Italy, pursuant to the terms of the Lateran Treaty of 1929. Dedicated to the Christ, in honor of John the Baptist and John the Evangelist, the place name, Laterano (Lateran) comes from an ancient Roman family (gens), whose palace (domus) grounds occupied the site; the adjacent Lateran Palace was the primary residence of the pope until the Middle Ages.

The church is the oldest and highest ranking of the four major papal basilicas as well as one of the Seven Pilgrim Churches of Rome, holding the unique title of "archbasilica". Founded in 324, it is the oldest public church in the city of Rome, and the oldest basilica of the Western world. It houses the cathedra of the Roman bishop, and has the title of ecumenical mother church of the Catholic faithful. The building deteriorated during the Middle Ages and was badly damaged by two fires in the 14th century. It was rebuilt in the late 16th century during the reign of Pope Sixtus V. The new structure's interior was renovated in the late 17th century, and its façade was completed in 1735 under Pope Clement XII.

The current rector is Cardinal Archpriest Angelo De Donatis, Vicar General for the Diocese of Rome. The president of the French Republic, currently Emmanuel Macron, is ex officio the "First and Only Honorary Canon" of the archbasilica, a title that the heads of state of France have possessed since King Henry IV.

The large Latin inscription on the façade reads: Clemens XII Pont Max Anno V Christo Salvatori In Hon SS Ioan Bapt et Evang. This abbreviated inscription translates as: "The Supreme Pontiff Clement XII, in the fifth year [of his Pontificate, dedicated this building] to Christ the Savior, in honor of Saints John the Baptist and [John] the Evangelist". The inscription indicates, with its full title (see below), that the archbasilica was originally dedicated to Christ the Savior and, centuries later, rededicated in honor of Saint John the Baptist and Saint John the Evangelist. Christ the Savior remains its primary dedication, and its titular feast day is 6 August, the Transfiguration of Christ. As the cathedral of the pope as bishop of Rome, it ranks superior to all other churches of the Catholic Church, including Saint Peter's Basilica.